Religious leader and religious conflict - Программа первая международная студенческая Интернет-конференция «Разнообразие...




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Religious leader and religious conflict
Джакслыкова Рузанна, студентка

Астраханский государственный университет
Russia is a multinational and a multi-confessional country. Considering present sloppy, transitional condition of our society, we may confirm that legislative disarray of the relations of state and religious associations, as well as problems of the relations of different confessions with each other generate the conflict situations, identified as religious conflicts.

The Religious conflict is a conflict of interests, discords and antagonism of subjects, motive of dispute which is models of religious sphere.

For successful adjusting of conflict in such complex sphere, as religious life, we follow not only clearly to know, what a religious conflict is, but also who provokes these conflicts to allow them. Exactly leaders of different religious organizations, using charismatic authority in their confessional ambiences, personally capable not only to allow the development, but also cessation of conflicts of different nature in religious and ambiences between them .

The Russian sociologist D. B. Malysheva confirms that particularities of the religious doctrine as such can not become the reason of the conflict, other deal; they can create the favorable conditions for its development. Together with that to predict beforehand, in what events religious contradictions can bring to a conflict, in a very complicated way, but occasionally simply impossible, since these contradictions is a result of the action factor, which contents can be often deeply hidden. In the first place the subjective factor refers to data factors on behalf of charismatic leader. The Study, the leader's activity of religious associations allows defining the reasons of the origin of conflict, opening operative power of their development and indicating the optimum ways of their termination. However the study of the given problem in history of the intellectual teachings, including confessional nature nobody concerned with. The theology strictly enough and monotonously interpreted the reasons of the manifestations of conflict in social and confessional ambience, linking them with sin of the human nature.

In XX age as a result of development the special geopolitical situation the scientific interest developed in respect of study of social and religious-political conflict, but categorizations of religious conflict as a whole and illuminations of role of confessional leaders and confessional elites in processes of the development of religious conflicts did not undertaken. Practically, the theorist-methodological base of the study the most religious conflict was absent. In public sciences, including in sociology of the religion and theoretical religious studies, sociological approach in interpreting the nature, structure and functions of the religious conflict dominated. English philosopher and sociologist XIX age Spencer one of the first accented attention of the science on social role of the conflict in society as determined stimulus of the social development. The representatives of the applicative school of sociology E. Durkheim, B. Malinowski, A. Radcliff-Brown, T. Parsons in row of their own works considered the religious conflicts, by means of which human society is differentiated or integrated, not adding importance to subjective factors.

Only one of the followers of the current sociological functionalism, a. founder of the school formal sociology, German philosopher Zimmeli in his work “Religion. Social-psychological etude" has partly illuminated the subjective moments of religious conflict. The German sociologist M. Weber accented more attention on subjective factor or role the personalities in shaping and development of different social and religious processes. The German sociologist emphasized the importance of activity of charismatic chieftains in the processes of the development of social and interconfessional conflicts, but he did not undertake the scale studies in the given direction. More definitely about the role of the subjective factor in religious conflict, not selecting problem in separate study, allegorized the ethnologists and anthropologists, in particular English anthropologist V. Terner. Conflict, in the opinion of V. Terner, genetic mortgaged in religious ambience therefore gradual institualisation of religious groups automatically generates the longing beside role of the persons to return to original community. This process promote to personalities, striving spontaneous or goal-directed to change of its social status in newly formed community. The founder of the direction of the psychoanalysis in psychology Austrian psychiatrist Z. Freud pointed to need of searching for of the reasons conflict, including with elements of religiosity in sphere unconscious.

In ambience pupil and followers Z. Freud problem of the correlation of the manifestations of conflict, including in religious ambience, and institute leadership subject the founder of the current of new-freudism E. Fromm was interested. According to E. Fromm’s theories a person already by reason of its biology is biased to conflict and aggression, which reveals itself and is transformed in the form necrophilia, in institute of offering sacrifice, violence in social and cult ambience, particularly under the influence of corresponding leader. E. Fromm as one of the reasons and manifestations of religious conflict implied the subjective role of the leader, causing psychopathic sufferings at their followers. The mentioned authors practically did not select and did not spare the particular attention to structure and functions of the religious conflict, which feature can be realized by means of analysis of subjective factors of conflict on material of the study role functions of confessional leader.

It’s possible to select the necessary scheme of forming of religious conflict with provision for role functions of religious leaders.

1. The Object of the religious conflict, to which social confessional ambience refers, inwardly which occurs that or other action; the processes, which possible qualify as conflict. Subject conflict, which emerge the members to religious organization, its leaders, religious organizations, hierarchical structures of religious organizations, which their actions realize the religious conflict, are its carrier. The Subject of the religious conflict, which can be material or spiritual comprises of itself systems of ideas, moved or real estate, the documents, subjects of the cult, finances, national-religious, religious-political, confessional values, spheres and institutes of authorities, having importance in religious ambience. Exactly, the religious leader defines the subject of the conflict, free or instinctively pursuing political, economic, legal, and confessional, the personal or collective purposes, which emerge in the same way motives of the development or fading of the processes religious conflict. Depending on larval features of confessional leader or charismatic leader select the following forms of the realization of conflict activity. Verbal, where leader of the religious association can itself tell or allow to tell other persons number positions, which will cause the contradictions and conflict situation.

2) Power (military), where leader of the religious association has a possibility to provoke in accordance with his purposes and inclinations depth, intensity and duration of the power conflict. The given forms of conflict, as a rule, psychopathic personalities, which distinctly present the consequences and victims of provoked contradictions prefer;

3) Documentary, where leader of the religious association fixes information the cult, status, political and other nature, potentially discordant some other written positions, causing conflict situation;

4) Emotional-psychological, where leader of the religious association provokes and creates the special emotional situation in group of their followers or in any other social group, reacting on contradictions in the form of sharp psychological crisis, shouts. The Subjective reasons religious conflict are basically connected with that individual psychological particularity opponent, which bring to that that they choose exactly conflict, rather then the other way of the permit of created objective contradiction. Amongst subjective reasons religious conflict the most important, certainly, are subjective activity and behavior of religious leaders. I want to note that, in the opinion of sociologists and conflictologists, any objective reason plays its role in origin of concrete conflict situation, including by reason of action of subjective factors. Certainly that practically at any religious conflict the complex of objective-subjective reasons exists. However we can confirm that on the general background of the whole variety of collection of factors, defining intensification that or other contradictions in society, their outgrow in religious conflict one of the most significant becomes factor of specific activity of the religious leader.
Conflicts in sphere of interethnic relations
Мараховская Екатерина Геннадьевна, студентка

Астраханский государственный университет
Interethnic, interethnic conflicts take a special place among other social conflicts. Not only social contradictions, language and cultural problems, but also historical memory, « the mobilized past » become powerful factors and bases of the conflict. The given conflicts can be considered through a prism of politics, economy, social structures and relations, etc. Pitirim Sorokin fairly compared national relations to a sandwich, i.e. with a complex of the relations covering all of sphere - politics, economy, a spiritual life, language, etc.

After disintegration of the USSR interethnic contradictions have amplified, conflicts existed to this time have flashed with new force, have become aggravated in various regions of the former Union (Ossetia, Abkhazia, Transnistria, etc.). Interethnic contradictions and conflicts have taken an essential place in a public life of Russia.

Russia is a multinational country, in all republics taken together, "indigenous population" makes only 32 % of the population, and in autonomous regions - 10,5 %.

The main feature of interethnic conflicts in Russia is caused as distinction of a ratio of Russian and non-Russian population on all space of federation, and mainly that the national psychology of Russian and national consciousness in some potentialities can destabilize a sociopolitical situation and aggravates interethnic contradictions. A dominating role in a society ideals start to play, values and installations of national consciousness of Russian ethnos, having caused (as well as consciousness of huge overweight of the number) the certain reorientation of ways and methods of regulation of ethnic conflicts. Not the ethnopolitical situation in Russia in itself, not generates numerical domination of Russian ethnos conflicts, and that crisis political, social and economic and spiritual situation in which there were all people, first of all - Russian nation. All spheres of a society are captured by contradictions which originally intertwine in a life of each nation, deforming their representation about interests, needs, sources of their satisfaction10.

The tragical situation in which there was a Russian ethnos, will intensively reanimate the essence and symbols of Russian idea, reviving not only progressive, but also its negative aspects. For the first time, perhaps, in history the moral state of health of Russian people, its consciousness test such aggravation and fear for the future when each another, even the small ethnos on number can appear before it in an image of the enemy.

Dispersion of Russian ethnos in all states of the former Union, their humiliated position in a number of regions not simply became a source of many conflicts (to Baltic region, to Central Asia, etc.), but also render direct and most serious influence on consciousness of Russian ethnos in general, causing ideologically-psychological reaction. Last years in Russian national consciousness have arisen as well aggressive-offensive moods basing great-power stereotypes that was not earlier. There are facts to believe, that they still will amplify. They will be fed with refugees-Russian, especially from Central Asia. Secondly, to Russia in searches of earnings or a residence greater streams natives of other states CIS illegally move, creating in different regions of the national communities (Georgian, Uzbek). Sometimes the activity and behaviour they become catalysts of such moods among Russian.

Acting in the market as carriers of trade relations, representatives of some nationalities as though personify all negative, that is connected with in the field of activity in a life of simple people - dearness, a deceit, threats etc. Their Basic weight is directly or indirectly connected with "shadow" economy where the people belonging to certain ethnic groups, as is known, are involved. Sometimes it is criminal syndicates with hierarchical structure where customs and tradition обязывают rank-and-file members to submit to their leaders. Such structures to a national or ethnic attribute lead to explosive situations in different regions of Russia, generating and strengthening proof negative national stereotypes11.

In the seventieth of XX century there is a skinhead movement, in our country this movement extends and amplifies more and more. Already in 80х years the shape skinhead began to appear: extreme nationalism, man's chauvinism, adherence to frankly violent methods. Skinheads -neo-Nazis of the different countries represent actively operating combat groups. They are the street fighters opposing racial mixtures, extended, as an infection, worldwide. They glorify cleanliness of race and courageous style of a life. They aspire to achieve the purposes more likely by disorganization of a society by direct violence and intimidation of the opponents. As a rule, the majority of the population though is afraid to state the consent with actions of these groupings, however at heart approves them. Slogans of type « Foreigners go home! » In the extreme form express the latent expectations of many simple inhabitants. The main reason of the introduction into lines of skinhead is the low standard of living. The alcoholism, a narcotism and a low level of education and upbringing of youth also have the direct attitude to activisation of the extremist organizations12.

Though recently many sociologists ascertain decline of movement, however, the majority of researchers of this phenomenon, consider, that it represents something greater, than passing hobby that proves to be true more than twenty years of its existence, with periodic rises and falling. It, nevertheless, continues to cause the response among youth and to involve them in the lines.

In opinion of clinical psychologist Pokusaevoj, sources of any nationalism are covered in personal problems. Also a source of nationalism can be envy. If at someone other nationality affairs go is better, and here skinheads begin to accuse the nationality, that it because it white, red, black. Russia enough for a long time have been the multinational state, therefore appeals: Russia for Russian, protect Russian blood-this direct instigation to war. To war between people and nationalities. One more of the reasons of development of nationalism, is usual human mutual relations. Very often, when people have interpersonal conflicts there is a hostility to that person to whom there was a conflict. If people of one nationality there is an estimation of qualities of the person: «He’s the villain, the swindler, the deceiver and other ». The picture sharply varies, if the national aspect of attitudes{relations} is added. « He is the villain, because he … (white, black, red and so forth) » When there is a disputed situation with one person often it turns out, that characteristics of one person are transferred{carried} on the nation, a nationality. Any person cannot be the characteristic of all nationality and cannot be responsible for other people of the same nationality. It is very important to show tolerance to the people, a living near you. The greater role in mitigation and overcoming of hostile installations is played with informal relations between representatives of different nationalities. Joint work and direct dialogue reduce the developed stereotypes, allow to see in the person of other race or a nationality not the representative of any national group, and the concrete person13.

Certainly, each concrete conflict on interethnic ground has the features, the reasons. The federal organization of the state of Russia is ground of every possible conflicts. Very sharp conflict to Tatarstan managed to be settled constitutional by, the conclusion of the special bilateral agreement. With the Chechen Republic it was not possible, and the political conflict has poured out in military. The Chechen crisis has shown that questions of integrity of the Russian state and indestructibility of its borders have got priority value in ways of regulation of interethnic problems.

All is obvious, that existing both potentially probable interethnic and interethnic conflicts, is direct or indirectly infringing interests of Russian people, can be peacefully settled in mutual interests if growth of consciousness of Russian ethnos and psychological displays of Russian national character are to the full considered in these conflicts14.

Multiple cultures in polyethnic regions
Романцова Екатерина Сергеевна, студентка

Астраханский государственный университет
Repeatedly in our life we meet concept "culture". To begin with we will try to understand in effect this concept. So, the culture is a limiting generality of all basic layers of historical process (economic, sociopolitical, ideological, practically-technical, craft, scientific, art, moral, religious, philosophical, national-folk, household). Certainly, in ordinary understanding we consider the culture as the reflection of national images of each people shown in folklore, art, the literature. Songs, dances, legends, fairy tales make huge impact on formation, education and development of ethnic groups. As eastern wise men spoke, «music is a source of pleasure for wise people, it is capable to cause good thoughts in the people, it deeply gets into its consciousness and easily changes traditions and customs».

In our country there are a lot of regions having a motley ethnic picture. Especially I wish to allocate the Astrakhan region in which over hundred ethnic groups live, about 20 faiths function. So, last population census has shown, that in the region there lives 72 % of Russian, 12.8 % of Kazakhs, 7.8 % of Tatars, 1.9 % of Ukrainians, 0.8 % of Kalmyks, 0.8 % of Chechens, etc.

Accordingly each of these ethnic groups has the customs, traditions, moral, religious values. And within one region it is impossible to synthesize them. Certainly, we can sometimes observe penetration of one culture into another, but it will be partial, superficial and at all will not change initial “prototypes” the given culture. Just because each culture is original, individual, demands the valid relation to it, its correct understanding, and also judgment of all variety of cultures, and there is a tolerance problem. It consists that tolerance can be shown as indulgence, that is position of own culture when all "others" are estimated as weaker is meant exclusive in consciousness of the person: they can be suffered, but thus simultaneously and to despise. It is necessary to struggle with it.

And on an example of our area I can safely declare, what even the edge of this problem does not concern us. Since early childhood children are brought up to respect different cultures by means of carrying out of the mass actions devoted to a celebration of this or that holiday of a separate ethnic group. Children with great pleasure take part in similar celebrations. Yes those there children, at times adults don’t differ from children and celebrate national holidays. For example, all for a long time already have known Sabantuy in Astrakhan, which this year has been celebrated very brightly and, I think, is remembered by all citizens and visitors of Astrakhan.


The Interaction process of eastern and western cultures.
Сагалиева Сания Зульбухаровна

Астраханский государственный университет
At all times Astrakhan has its unique colour due to variety of cultures and ethnic groups living in peace and agreement. So Astrakhan had been plaiyng the role of uniting part between civilizations of the East and the West.

There are a lot of facts in history, wich prove that Astrakhan was the place where the destinies of different ethnic groups were ruled. We can state that Astrakhan was a multicultural center.

In IX-X centuries there was «The Volzksky merchant way», witch connected Northern and Eastern Europe with the world of the Islam East.

In the lower Volga the splash of different civilizations took place here – the Gunnes, Sarmats, Hazards, Polovci, and Tatar Mongols. The Long Volzhsky way brought together Hazard, Slavic, Jewish and even Scandinavian merchants. Since that time we can observe extending the process of interaction of the East and the West in Astrakhan region. The town took «an eastern face» with Karavan-Sarays (palaces), mosques, bath-houses. Moreover in the XIII century the Normandic tribes began the process of mixing in the Lower Volga and it is still in progress.

In 16 century when the town became «an apple of discord» between Turkey, Iran and Russia. Each culture influenced and made special contribution into the national character of the Astrakhan region. So Persians brought silk, colours, carpets, nuts and Russians bought it with pleasure.New goods changed customary life-style of the natives.

In 1556 Tsar Ivan the Terible joined Astrakhan to Russia. Since then a lot of Russian merchants from different places came to Astrakhan. They brought red skin, wooden dishes, bread, pork and Normandic men bought their goods and successfully used them in private life.

Kalmyks who were the descendants of Mongols and came to the Lower Volga in the XVII century adopted such Russian traditions as drinking vodka and the Russians began drinking “Kalmyk” tea. In history there were cases when Kalmyk married to Russian and Kasak women. The process of interosculation of Eastern and Western has aninteractive character.

Representatives of each culture tried to live in tolerance and agreement. Especially it is obvious during holidays when Muslims celebrate Easter and Cristmas Day with pleasure. At the same time Christians eat the national cuisine dishes on the Muslim’s spring holiday «Nauruz». Near Muslims sacred plases such as Seit-baba, mausoleum of Kurmangazy we can see not only Tatars, Kazakh, Nogais, Dagestans, but Russians, too. As other people they believe in sacred power.

Unfortunately, people forget about such conceptions as religious tolerance and it brings us to arising of national conflicts.

But the experience of humanity in the sphere of relationships will help us to solve problems of placeful existence of coexistence of different cultures in polyethnic in civilized manner.
The problem of tolerance in Astrakhan region.
Круглова Виктория Викторовна

Астраханский государственный университет
Tolerance (from lat. “tolerantia”) means patience, indulgence to something. The term “tolerance” is used in The Declaration of the principles of tolerance which was proclaimed and signed by UNESCO in 1995.

Mostly tolerance is determined as toleration to strange opinion, beliefs, behavior, as indulgence to somebody or something and which reveal in relations between persons and different social groups. This term means not only tolerance; it also means readiness to make a compromise, a collaboration, a dialog and an interaction.

“Fusion of cultures is successful only when the principles of toleration are observed. Tolerance is represented as a quality of relations which are connected with one culture’s readiness of accepting other culture, its values, senses, types of mentality, etc. The finding of integrity is impossible without the concordance of values, goals, interests, without respect and acceptance of the equality of every culture, which contributes to the preservation of every culture originality, but not to the spreading of one culture in another.” [1]

Representatives of more then 100 nationalities, 14 religions and 17 national communities live in Astrakhan in peace and cooperation.

Multinational Astrakhan gives us the opportunity to analyse interrelations between the representatives of different nationalities and to define the importance of such an inalienable component of these interrelations as tolerance.

We have made a sociological research and carried out the analysis. The results of the research showed us the real situation in Astrakhan. Representatives of different nationalities (50 persons) aged from 18 to 22 years old; students of the juridical faculty of the ASU were interrogated. The survey consisted of the following questions:

  1. Your Nationality.

  2. Are you a native of the Astrakhan region? If not then indicate your birthplace.

  3. Do you like living in Astrakhan or would you prefer living in another place?

  4. Do you think that it is dangerous for other nationalities to live in Astrakhan?

  5. Do you agree with the statement that Astrakhan is the ideal example of getting on of different nationalities?

  6. Have you ever had to hide your nationality in Astrakhan?

  7. Have you ever felt hostility from the representatives of other nationalities?

  8. Indicate a typical sign to distinct you from other nationalities?

  9. a) When you make friends do you pay attention to the person’s nationality?

b) Do you have friends of other nationalities?

10. Do you think that the problem of nationality intolerance is real?

The results of the survey are the following:

About 51% of the respondents are Russians.

About 49% of the respondents are the representatives of other nationalities.

88% of respondents answered that their birth place is Astrakhan region;

12% of the respondents answered that their birth place is another city.

51% of respondents like living in Astrakhan;

49% of the respondents dislike living in Astrakhan.

54% of the respondents think that it is dangerous for other nationalities to live in Astrakhan;

46% of the respondents think that it isn’t dangerous for other nationalities to live in Astrakhan.

57% of the respondents agree with the statement that Astrakhan is the ideal example of getting on of different nationalities;

43% – disagree.

None of the respondents hides their nationality in Astrakhan.

61% of the respondents never felt hostility from the representatives of other nationalities;

39% of the respondents felt it (12% Russian; 27% representatives of other nationality).

The respondents of this interrogation indicate the following typical signs which distinct them from other nationalities:

50% – appearance;

23% – religion;

17% – language;

10% – culture, custom;

Two people responded that they don’t differ from others in any way, but their personal qualities. For one respondent the sign of distinction is the record in his birth certificate telling that he is Russian.

a) 81% of the respondents don’t pay attention to the person’s nationality when they make friends;

19% – of the respondents do it;

b) All of the respondents have friends of other nationalities.

All of the respondents think that the problem of nationality intolerance is real.

Having analysed the results of the survey we can conclude that Astrakhan is the place where the representatives of different nationalities get on together, interact and strive for the same goals. But it’s impossible to speak about ideal interrelations between representatives of different nationalities living in Astrakhan. More than 50% of the respondents think that it is dangerous for other nationalities to live in Astrakhan. About 40% of the respondents felt hostility from the representatives of other nationalities and 100% of the respondents think that the problem of tolerance in Astrakhan is real.

The problem of tolerance in Astrakhan region requires a deep study and special approach. Speaking about the formation of tolerance in definite people, we think that it should be formatted as a part of patriotism. It is necessary to take into account age, sex, education, kind of activity, living conditions of people, on which the program of tolerance is counted. “It is also necessary to take the following actions, which must be controlled by regional powers:

The main problem of multicultural society is not the elimination of differences between nations, nationalities, but searching of the dialog, introducing to the general values, preserving the uniqueness of these cultures.


Список использованной литературы

[1] Философия и будущее цивилизации: Тезисы докладов и выступлений IV Российского философского конгресса (Москва, 24-28 мая 2005 г.): В 5 т. Т.4 – М.: Современные тетради, 2005. – 776с.


Discrimination of ethnic groups in USA
Ткачёва Наталия, Соколова Екатерина

Астраханский государственный университет
Nowadays there is the country with evident and proclaimed racialism. Racism exists in individual level in the daily conditions of life.

We conducted interview, facts which we came to the conclusion, that today racism in USA is a hidden factor, which is in almost Americans subconscious.

American social psychologist shows their anxiety of racialism’s problem. They conducted much investigations of inter-races attitude and they think that today in USA frank and coarse racism is changed in perfect or symbolic racism. Symbolic racism is expressed in discrimination of receiving to choosing work, the place of living and in stringing social relationships. White American people don’t like dark-skin man, because they are speaking, behaving yourself not as white. Equality in the enjoyment of human rights requires abstention from and prevention of discrimination; equality in dignity requires respect for the self identification of the individual with her or his group, within a broader society of reciprocal tolerance between members of different groups. The intensity of religious, national, or ethnic conflicts can often be traced to a lack of respect for ordinary individual human rights on an impartial basis. Such conflicts could often have been prevented had there been full impartiality in the administration of justice, with special emphasis on equal and effective protection of all ethnic groups by law enforcement officials and security forces. The right to freedom of association, if applied without discrimination on ethnic grounds, would make possible the peaceful and open expression of policy preferences by such groups. Freedom of expression and information on an equal basis for all ethnic groups would make it possible for them all to express themselves and seek information in the language they prefer, including their mother tongue, orally and in writing. Freedom to participate in cultural life of the community means that individuals can preserve and develop the culture of the community constituted by each minority group.
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